Journal of Medical Physics
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   2010| January-March  | Volume 35 | Issue 1  
    Online since January 7, 2010

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Automated medical image segmentation techniques
Neeraj Sharma, Lalit M Aggarwal
January-March 2010, 35(1):3-14
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.58777  PMID:20177565
Accurate segmentation of medical images is a key step in contouring during radiotherapy planning. Computed topography (CT) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are the most widely used radiographic techniques in diagnosis, clinical studies and treatment planning. This review provides details of automated segmentation methods, specifically discussed in the context of CT and MR images. The motive is to discuss the problems encountered in segmentation of CT and MR images, and the relative merits and limitations of methods currently available for segmentation of medical images.
  117 27,542 2,148
Measurement of gamma radiation levels in soil samples from Thanjavur using γ-ray spectrometry and estimation of population exposure
B Senthilkumar, V Dhavamani, S Ramkumar, P Philominathan
January-March 2010, 35(1):48-53
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.55966  PMID:20177570
This study assesses the level of terrestrial gamma radiation and associated dose rates from the naturally occurring radionuclides 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in 10 soil samples collected from Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu, India) using g-ray spectrometry. The activity profile of radionuclides has clearly showed the existence of low level activity in Thanjavur. The geometric mean activity concentrations of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K is 42.9±9.4 -1 , 14.7±1.7 -1 and 149.5±3.1 -1 respectively are derived from all the soil samples studied. The activity concentration of 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K in soil is due to the presence of metamorphic rocks like shale, hornblende-biotite gneiss and quartzofeldspathic gneiss in these areas. Gamma absorbed dose rates in air outdoors were calculated to be in the range between 32 nGy.h -1 and 59.1 nGy.h -1 with an arithmetic mean of 43.3 ±9 nGy.h -1 . This value is lesser than the population weighted world-averaged of 60 nGy.h -1 . Inhabitants of Thanjavur are subjected to external gamma radiation exposure (effective dose) ranging between 39.2 and 72.6 μSv.y -1 with an arithmetic mean of 53.1±11 μSv.y -1 . The values of the external hazard index determined from the soil radioactivity of the study area are less than the recommended safe levels.
  20 8,411 368
SIMIND Monte Carlo simulation of a single photon emission CT
MT Bahreyni Toossi, J Pirayesh Islamian, M Momennezhad, M Ljungberg, SH Naseri
January-March 2010, 35(1):42-47
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.55967  PMID:20177569
In this study, we simulated a Siemens E.CAM SPECT system using SIMIND Monte Carlo program to acquire its experimental characterization in terms of energy resolution, sensitivity, spatial resolution and imaging of phantoms using 99m Tc. The experimental and simulation data for SPECT imaging was acquired from a point source and Jaszczak phantom . Verification of the simulation was done by comparing two sets of images and related data obtained from the actual and simulated systems. Image quality was assessed by comparing image contrast and resolution. Simulated and measured energy spectra (with or without a collimator) and spatial resolution from point sources in air were compared. The resulted energy spectra present similar peaks for the gamma energy of 99m Tc at 140 KeV. FWHM for the simulation calculated to14.01 KeV and 13.80 KeV for experimental data, corresponding to energy resolution of 10.01and 9.86% compared to defined 9.9% for both systems, respectively. Sensitivities of the real and virtual gamma cameras were calculated to 85.11 and 85.39 cps/MBq, respectively. The energy spectra of both simulated and real gamma cameras were matched. Images obtained from Jaszczak phantom, experimentally and by simulation, showed similarity in contrast and resolution. SIMIND Monte Carlo could successfully simulate the Siemens E.CAM gamma camera. The results validate the use of the simulated system for further investigation, including modification, planning, and developing a SPECT system to improve the quality of images.
  19 6,401 252
Studying wedge factors and beam profiles for physical and enhanced dynamic wedges
Misbah Ahmad, Amjad Hussain, Wazir Muhammad, Syed Qaisar Abbas Rizvi, Matiullah
January-March 2010, 35(1):33-41
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.57116  PMID:20177568
This study was designed to investigate variation in Varian's Physical and Enhanced Dynamic Wedge Factors (WF) as a function of depth and field size. The profiles for physical wedges (PWs) and enhanced dynamic wedges (EDWs) were also measured using LDA-99 array and compared for confirmation of EDW angles at different depths and field sizes. WF measurements were performed in water phantom using cylindrical 0.66 cc ionization chamber. WF was measured by taking the ratio of wedge and open field ionization data. A normalized wedge factor (NWF) was introduced to circumvent large differences between wedge factors for different wedge angles. A strong linear dependence of PW Factor (PWF) with depth was observed. Maximum variation of 8.9% and 4.1% was observed for 60° PW with depth at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively. The variation in EDW Factor (EDWF) with depth was almost negligible and less than two per cent. The highest variation in PWF as a function of field size was 4.1% and 3.4% for thicker wedge (60°) at 6 and 15 MV beams respectively and decreases with decreasing wedge angle. EDWF shows strong field size dependence and significant variation was observed for all wedges at both photon energies. Differences in profiles between PW and EDW were observed on toe and heel sides. These differences were dominant for larger fields, shallow depths, thicker wedges and low energy beam. The study indicated that ignoring depth and field size dependence of WF may result in under/over dose to the patient especially doing manual point dose calculation.
  7 8,005 513
Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials
S Sahoo, T Palani Selvam, RS Vishwakarma, G Chourasiya
January-March 2010, 35(1):15-22
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.58779  PMID:20177566
The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.
  7 5,942 415
Monte Carlo simulation of a multi-leaf collimator design for telecobalt machine using BEAMnrc code
Komanduri M Ayyangar, M Dinesh Kumar, Pradush Narayan, Fenedit Jesuraj, MR Raju
January-March 2010, 35(1):23-32
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.58780  PMID:20177567
This investigation aims to design a practical multi-leaf collimator (MLC) system for the cobalt teletherapy machine and check its radiation properties using the Monte Carlo (MC) method. The cobalt machine was modeled using the BEAMnrc Omega-Beam MC system, which could be freely downloaded from the website of the National Research Council (NRC), Canada. Comparison with standard depth dose data tables and the theoretically modeled beam showed good agreement within 2%. An MLC design with low melting point alloy (LMPA) was tested for leakage properties of leaves. The LMPA leaves with a width of 7 mm and height of 6 cm, with tongue and groove of size 2 mm wide by 4 cm height, produced only 4% extra leakage compared to 10 cm height tungsten leaves. With finite 60 Co source size, the interleaf leakage was insignificant. This analysis helped to design a prototype MLC as an accessory mount on a cobalt machine. The complete details of the simulation process and analysis of results are discussed.
  2 4,563 297
Preparation of manuscript
AS Pradhan
January-March 2010, 35(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0971-6203.58774  PMID:20177564
  1 3,199 338
Highlights of 30 th Annual Conference of Association of Medical Physicists of India (AMPICON-2009)
SD Sharma
January-March 2010, 35(1):57-58
  - 2,266 218

January-March 2010, 35(1):54-56
  - 2,156 106
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