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2006| April-June | Volume 31 | Issue 2
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Impact of 6MV photon beam attenuation by carbon fiber couch and immobilization devices in IMRT planning and dose delivery
RK Munjal, PS Negi, AG Babu, SN Sinha, AK Anand, T Kataria
April-June 2006, 31(2):67-71
Multiple fields in IMRT and optimization allow conformal dose to the target and reduced dose to the surroundings and the regions of interest. Thus we can escalate the dose to the target to achieve better tumor control with low morbidity. Orientation of multiple beams can be achieved by i) different gantry angles, ii) rotating patient's couch isocentrically. In doing so, one or more beam may pass through different materials like the treatment couch, immobilization cast fixation plate, head and neck rest or any other supportive device. Our observations for 6MV photon beam on PRIMUS-KXE2 with MED-TEC carbon fiber tabletop and 10 x 10 cm2 field size reveals that the maximum dose attenuation by the couch was of the order of 2.96% from gantry angle 120-160°. Attenuation due to cast fixation base plate of PMMA alone was of the order of 5.8-10.55% at gantry angle between 0 and 90°. Attenuation due to carbon fiber base plate alone was 3.8-7.98%. Attenuation coefficient of carbon fiber and PMMA was evaluated and was of the order of 0.082 cm-1 and 0.064 cm-1 respectively. Most of the TPS are configured for direct beam incidence attenuation correction factors only. Whereas when the beam is obliquely incident on the couch, base plate, headrest and any other immobilization device get attenuated more than the direct beam incidence. The correction factors for oblique incidence beam attenuation are not configured in most of the commercially available treatment planning systems. Therefore, such high variations in dose delivery could lead to under-dosage to the target volume for treatments requiring multiple fields in IMRT and 3D-CRT and need to be corrected for monitor unit calculations.
Optimization of the imaging protocol of an X-ray CT scanner for evaluation of normoxic polymer gel dosimeters
Brindha Subramanian, Paul B Ravindran, Clive Baldock
April-June 2006, 31(2):72-77
X-ray computer tomography (CT) has previously been reported as an evaluation tool for polymer gel (PAG) dosimeters. In this study, the imaging protocol of a Siemens Emotion X-ray CT scanner was optimized to evaluate PAGAT normoxic gel dosimeters. The scan parameters were optimized as 130 kV and 150 mA with a slice thickness of 3 mm for smaller fields and 5 mm for larger fields of irradiation. The number of images to be averaged to reduce noise to an acceptable level was concluded to be 25. It was also concluded that the total monomer concentration required is 7% with 10 mM THP to obtain a maximum change in CT number at dose levels up to 15 Gy for evaluation with X-ray CT. Optimal scan parameters may vary with X-ray CT scanner. Hence the imaging protocol of each scanner to be used for evaluating polymer gels requires individual optimization for the purposes of gel dosimetry evaluation.
Dosimetric comparison of inverse optimization with geometric optimization in combination with graphical optimization for HDR prostate implants
Swamidas V Jamema, Sherly Saju, Umesh M Shetty, Siddanna Pallad, DD Deshpande, SK Shrivastava
April-June 2006, 31(2):89-94
The purpose of this study is to compare geometric optimization (GO) with anatomy based inverse optimization (ABIO). Five patients of carcinoma prostate treated with HDR interstitial brachytherapy had been studied. Post implant CT scans of 5 mm slice thickness were obtained; target volume and other critical structures rectum, bladder and urethra were drawn by the clinician. Plans were obtained with geometric optimization and anatomy based inversed optimization. Anatomy based inverse planning implemented currently in PLATO BPS version 14.2, is based on geometric and dose point optimization and designed to account for the critical structures. Graphical optimization (GrO) is used to fine-tune the distribution ie to reduce the dose to critical structures and to improve the target coverage in both geometric optimization and anatomy based inverse optimization plans. DVH of target, rectum, bladder and urethra were evaluated and compared, dose homogeneity index and conformity index were also evaluated for all the plans. The mean target coverage was 93.9±7%, 90.3±4%, 82±13%, 91.6±3 for different optimization techniques GO, GO_gr, ABIO and ABIO_gr respectively. The target coverage in ABIO is not clinically acceptable. Maximum dose, dose to 2% of the volume of urethra D2%,U was 137±12%, 123.2±2%, 111.5±9, 122.7±4 for GO, GO_gr, ABIO and ABIO_gr respectively. The mean conformity index values were 0.71, 0.76, 0.65, 0.82 for GO, GO_gr, ABIO, ABIO_gr respectively. ABIO_gr has a good conformity over all other optimization techniques. However the difference is not very significant between GO and GO_gr. The mean values of DHI are 0.81, 0.77, 0.65 and 0.75 for GO, GO_gr, ABIO and ABIO_gr respectively. Geometric optimization is highly homogenous compared to all other optimization techniques. To conclude, target coverage in ABIO is not clinically acceptable. However ABIO followed by graphical optimization is much superior in sparing of critical structures and conformity compared to geometrical optimization. Target coverage is marginally better in GO compared to ABIO_gr. Homogeneity is superior in GO compared to ABIO_gr. However ABIO_gr plans were clinically acceptable with respect to homogeneity. Further, dose escalation to the target is possible with ABIO, without exceeding the tolerance dose to urethra. Clinical correlation of genitourinary toxicity has to be studied.
Evaluation of gafchromic EBT film for intensity modulated radiation therapy dose distribution verification
A Sankar, PG Goplakrishna Kurup, V Murali, Komanduri M Ayyangar, R Mothilal Nehru, J Velmurugan
April-June 2006, 31(2):78-82
This work was undertaken with the intention of investigating the possibility of clinical use of commercially available self-developing radiochromic film - Gafchromic EBT film - for IMRT dose verification. The dose response curves were generated for the films using VXR-16 film scanner. The results obtained with EBT films were compared with the results of Kodak EDR2 films. It was found that the EBT film has a linear response between the dose ranges of 0 and 600 cGy. The dose-related characteristics of the EBT film, like post-irradiation color growth with time, film uniformity and effect of scanning orientation, were studied. There is up to 8.6% increase in the color density between 2 and 40 h after irradiation. There was a considerable variation, up to 8.5%, in the film uniformity over its sensitive region. The quantitative difference between calculated and measured dose distributions was analyzed using Gamma index with the tolerance of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance agreement. EDR2 films showed good and consistent results with the calculated dose distribution, whereas the results obtained using EBT were inconsistent. The variation in the film uniformity limits the use of EBT film for conventional large field IMRT verification. For IMRT of smaller field size (4.5 x 4.5 cm), the results obtained with EBT were comparable with results of EDR2 films.
Intra-operative dosimetry of trans-rectal ultrasound guided
I prostate implants using C-arm fluoroscopic images
Paul B Ravindran, C Lewis, J Van Dyk, D D'Souza
April-June 2006, 31(2):61-66
Permanent implantation of radioactive seeds is a viable and effective therapeutic option widely used today for early-stage prostate cancer. The implant technique has improved considerably during the recent years due to the use of image guidance; however, real-time dose distributions would allow potential cold spots to be assessed and additional seeds added. In this study, we investigate the use of a conventional C-arm fluoroscopy unit for image acquisition and evaluation of dose distribution immediately after the implant. The phantom study indicates that it is possible to obtain seed positions within ±2 mm. A pilot study carried out with three patients indicated that it is possible to obtain seed positions and calculate the dose distribution with C-arm fluoroscopy and about 95% of the seeds were reconstructed within ±2 mm. The results could be further improved with better digital imaging.
The non-uniformity correction factor for the cylindrical ionization chambers in dosimetry of an HDR
Ir brachytherapy source
Bishnu Majumdar, Narayan Prasad Patel, V Vijayan
April-June 2006, 31(2):83-88
The aim of this study is to derive the non-uniformity correction factor for the two therapy ionization chambers for the dose measurement near the brachytherapy source. The two ionization chambers of 0.6 cc and 0.1 cc volume were used. The measurement in air was performed for distances between 0.8 cm and 20 cm from the source in specially designed measurement jig. The non-uniformity correction factors were derived from the measured values. The experimentally derived factors were compared with the theoretically calculated non-uniformity correction factors and a close agreement was found between these two studies. The experimentally derived non-uniformity correction factor supports the anisotropic theory.
Standardization and harmonization in clinical dosimetry in terms of absorbed dose to water as the measurand for beta radiation brachytherapy
April-June 2006, 31(2):59-60
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