Journal of Medical Physics
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 47  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 166-172

Flattening Filter-Free Volumetric-Modulated Arc Radiotherapy for Left-Sided Whole-Breast, Partial-Breast, and Postmastectomy Irradiations


1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University; Department of Radiation Oncology, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
3 Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA
4 Department of Radiation Oncology, CTSI Physics Services, Springfield, MO, USA
5 Department of Radiation Oncology, Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA; Department of Radiation Oncology, Slidell Memorial Regional Cancer Center, Slidell, LA, USA
6 Department of Experimental Statistics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rui Zhang
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Los Angeles
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmp.jmp_146_21

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Purpose: Unflattened photon beams exhibit many benefits over traditional flattened beams for radiotherapy (RT), but comprehensive evaluations of dosimetric results and beam-on time using flattening filter-free (FFF) beams for all types of breast irradiations are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate if FFF RT can maintain equal or better dose coverage than standard flattened-beam RT while reducing doses to organs at risk (OARs) and beam-on time for various types of breast cancer irradiations. Methods and Materials: FFF volumetric-modulated arc therapy (FFF-VMAT) and standard VMAT (STD-VMAT) treatment plans were created for 15 whole-breast irradiation (WBI) patients with 50 Gy/25 fractions, 13 partial-breast irradiation (PBI) patients with 38.5 Gy/10 fractions, and 9 postmastectomy irradiation (PMI) patients with 50 Gy/25 fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) coverage and dose to OARs were evaluated. Results: Both techniques produced clinically acceptable plans for all three types of irradiations. For WBI, FFF-VMAT plans exhibited similar PTV and OARs evaluation metrics as STD-VMAT. For PBI, FFF-VMAT plans showed significantly lower mean and maximum doses for ipsilateral and contralateral lungs, contralateral breast, and heart. For PMI, FFF-VMAT plans showed significantly lower mean dose and V5 for contralateral breast but significantly higher Dmean, Dmax, and V20 for ipsilateral lung and significantly higher Dmean, V22.5, and V30 for heart. FFF-VMAT techniques significantly reduced beam-on time than STD-VMAT for all cases. Conclusion: This work has shown that FFF beams are most beneficial for small-field irradiation such as PBI, and breast cancer patients could potentially benefit from the shortened beam-on time.


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